Cross-sectoral assessment of CO2 capture from U.S. industrial flue gases for fuels and chemicals manufacture

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Journal Article

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Although CO2 impacts the environment negatively, it can be a valuable resource due to its carbon content. The U.S. industry emits over 825 Mt of CO2 annually, with an expected increase in the future. This article analyzes 27 different technology combinations for capturing and using CO2 for industrial feedstocks, including the production of synthetic methane, methanol, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. The study also estimates and compares the energy requirements for capturing and converting CO2 from 16 different industrial sources, as well as the energy requirements for hydrogen production through state-of-the-art and emerging electrolyzer technologies. Additionally, the study develops a combined scenario that outlines a design for applying an inclusive approach to achieve net-zero CO2 emissions in the industrial sector, incorporating multiple decarbonization measures. The results suggest that the use of CO2 for methane production has the potential to replace all natural gas demands considered in the base case and combined scenarios. However, using CO2 utilization-based Fischer-Tropsch products alone to replace naphtha feedstock and transportation fuels is not sufficient to achieve complete decarbonization in the studied end uses. CO2 utilization-based methanol could potentially substitute for several times the current U.S. methanol production and meet the current global demand for methanol. Moreover, the study conducts an economic analysis to estimate the costs of CO2 utilization, which vary for different industrial sectors and depend on the technologies employed. Overall, this study provides valuable information for policymakers and industry stakeholders who are striving to develop effective strategies to decarbonize the industrial sector.


International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control



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