Post-occupancy evaluation of indoor environmental quality in ten nonresidential buildings in Chongqing, China
Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is an essential element of sustainable building performance. To advance knowledge of indoor environmental quality in Chinese nonresidential buildings, this study conducted post-occupancy evaluation (POE) in varied use areas within schools, hospitals, offices, hotels and shopping malls through environmental measurements and occupant surveys in 10 buildings over four seasons in Chongqing, China. Measured thermal conditions were more frequently within comfort standards in winter than in summer according to the predicted mean vote – predicted percentage dissatisfied model; but the model did not reliably predict thermal satisfaction. There was insufficient illuminance in 28% of studied areas and high illuminance in shopping malls led to complaints about glare. Sound pressure exceeded the Chinese guideline in all buildings with shopping malls having significantly higher levels than other buildings. CO2 was generally below the Chinese national guideline of 1000 ppm; the two percent of measurements that exceeded the guideline occurred in classrooms, hospital wards and underground supermarkets. Formaldehyde did not exceed the limit level of 0.1 mg/m3 in any space. Most of the buildings did not provide effective protection from outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and infiltration from outdoors was the main factor for exceeding health-based guidelines indoors. Shopping malls had lower IEQ satisfaction than offices, schools and hospitals. Sound was the factor with the lowest satisfaction level among the four principal environmental factors. Overall, this study demonstrates value of POE on identifying deficiencies in indoor environment and provides a reference for assessment of IEQ in nonresidential buildings.