Techno-economic Analysis of High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage for On-Demand Heat and Power
Herein we present a concept of a high-temperature, thermal energy storage (HT-TES) system for large-scale long duration energy storage (>10 hours) applications. The system relies on tunable composite ceramic materials with high electrical conductivity and can output the stored energy flexibly in the form of heat at 1100 degrees C or higher, and as electricity. We model the performance and cost of the system in a techno-economic analysis to identify key material and system properties influencing viability. For applications with daily operation (12 hours storage duration), we find achieving levelized storage costs below US Department of Energy’s 5 ₵/kWhe (1-2.5 ₵/kWhth equivalent) target by 2030 is possible. Candidate materials should have above 600-900 high-temperature cycle stability while offering at least 104 S/m of electrical conductivity. Our results suggest this system can be economical for longer storage durations (weeks to months) when coupled with intermittent charging using surplus renewable energy sources.