A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

Publication Type


Date Published




A total cost of ownership model is described for emerging applications in stationary fuel cell systems, specifically low temperature proton exchange membrane (LT PEM) systems for use in combined heat and power applications from 1 to 250 kilowatts-electric (kWe[1]) and backup power applications from 1 to 50 kWe. The total cost of ownership framework expands the direct manufacturing cost modeling framework of other studies to include operational costs, life-cycle impact assessment of possible ancillary financial benefits during operation and at end-of-life, including credits for reduced emissions of global warming gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), reductions in environmental and health externalities, and end-of-life recycling.

[1] In this report, units of kWe stand for net kW electrical power unless otherwise noted.

Year of Publication



Research Areas

Related Files